How does an air conditioner work?

The literal meaning of air conditioning is "keeping the air in an enclosed space at the right temperature and cleanliness. So the installation we use for this purpose is called air conditioning. This installation consists of three parts:

The indoor unit

The indoor unit blows the cooled or heated air into the room. This air is drawn in from the room itself. When the air conditioner is used to cool, the indoor unit extracts warm air from the room and then causes cool air to be blown in. Cooling the air is done by blowing the warm air through a cold heat exchanger by means of a fan.

The outdoor unit

The outdoor unit releases excess heat or cold to the outside air and transports the refrigerant (R32). The refrigerant is needed to ensure that the heat exchanger in the indoor unit can cool the intake air.


The indoor unit and the outdoor unit work together to control the temperature in the room. The system can be set using the remote control that communicates with the indoor unit.

Air Conditioning

The operation of the indoor unit, outdoor unit and remote controller in detail

The indoor unit

Indoor units come in many appearances. The most familiar model is the wall-mounted model. This is mounted on the wall high in the room. There are also models that stand on the floor, hang from the ceiling or are built-in. Depending on the needs of the user and the possibilities in the room, different models can be chosen.

The indoor unit draws air from the room, transfers heat or cold from the air to the heat exchanger and transports the heat or cold through the cooling duct to the outdoor unit. When the air conditioner is set to cool, the cool air obtained is then blown into the room through the discharge nozzle. When the air conditioner is set to heat, the warm air obtained is blown into the room through the discharge nozzle.

In addition, almost every air conditioner has a filter system that ensures that the cooled or heated air blown into the room is free of dust, polluting particles and unpleasant odors. Also, the filter inhibits the spread of bacteria and viruses! The particles are captured and collected in an internal filter, which can be easily cleaned by the user himself. When the air conditioner is set to cool, it will also dehumidify the incoming air. The collected moisture is discharged to the outside via a condensate line.

The outdoor unit

The outdoor unit is naturally mounted outside. The size of the outdoor unit depends on its capacity, which in turn depends on the dimensions of the room to be cooled and heated. The larger the desired capacity of the system, the larger the outdoor unit. The outdoor unit can be placed on rubber blocks on the roof, on the balcony or on the floor. Also, the outdoor unit can be placed against the wall with a wall bracket. Cooling pipes connect the outdoor unit to the indoor unit. These cooling pipes transport the refrigerant (R32) that transports the heat or cold. The cooling process is reversible (inverter), so the air conditioner can also heat. Therefore, air conditioners are also heat pumps.

When the air conditioner is set to heat, the outdoor unit extracts heat from the outside air. Even when the outdoor temperature is below 0, the outdoor unit can still extract heat from the outside air. The collected heat is returned to the indoor unit by the condenser. The outdoor unit also houses the compressor, the "motor" of the air conditioner, which causes the refrigerant to flow throughout the system.

The remote control

To operate the air conditioner, we use a remote control that communicates with the indoor unit. The remote control can be used to set the temperature, of course, but also things like the desired mode, discharge pattern, fan speed and time. In addition, nowadays almost all air conditioners are equipped with WiFi, so the air conditioner can be controlled via a tablet or smartphone. This gives the opportunity to turn on the air conditioner before you get home, or to control the air conditioner from a room other than where the indoor unit hangs.

Types of air conditioners

There are different types of air conditioners available. For example, there are the normal split systems with an indoor unit and an outdoor unit, but there are also systems with multiple indoor units connected to one outdoor unit, called a multisplit system.




Split air conditioner

The first air conditioners consisted of one part and were only capable of cooling. These were mounted in the window frame. All functions were united in this one device. As technology improved and for aesthetic reasons, the functions were separated and housed in two different parts. The indoor unit and the outdoor unit. which are connected by a cooling pipe. This is why an air conditioner is also called a "split unit.

Multisplit air conditioner

When an air conditioner needs to be installed in multiple rooms, a multi-split air conditioner can be chosen. One outdoor unit is then installed to which several indoor units can be connected. The indoor units can operate independently and are controlled individually.

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